Such a subtype could cause a global pandemic similar to the Spanish Flu that killed up to 50 million people in Corticosteroids should not be used routinely, unless indicated for other reasons eg: Asian H7N9 viruses continue to circulate in poultry in China.
Flu Pandemics Throughout History Pinpointing pandemics from historical reports is challenging given the lack of accurate and consistent records, but epidemiologists generally agree that the influenza outbreak is the earliest known pandemic.
Whether currently-circulating avian, swine and other zoonotic influenza viruses will result in a future pandemic is unknown.
Most cause asymptomatic or mild infection in birds, where the range of symptoms depends on the virus properties. Pandemics are unpredictable, but recurring events that can have health, economic and social consequences worldwide.
Rare, sporadic H9N2 virus infections in people have been reported to generally cause mild upper respiratory tract illness; one infection has results in death.
The new subtypes arose in pigs coinfected with avian and human viruses and were soon transferred to humans. Pandemic potential Influenza pandemics are epidemics that affect a large proportion of the world due to a novel virus. These strains are named after Fujian province in China. Encourage family members to do the same to stay well and prevent flu.
Disease features such as the incubation period, severity of symptoms and clinical outcome varies by the virus causing infection but mainly manifests with respiratory symptoms.
The majority of human cases of influenza A H5N1 and A H7N9 virus infection have been associated with direct or indirect contact with infected live or dead poultry. Upper respiratory tract symptoms such as sore throat or coryza are less common. In suspected and confirmed cases, neuraminidase inhibitors should be prescribed as soon as possible ideally, within 48 hours following symptom onset to maximize therapeutic benefits.
The case fatality rate for A H5 and A H7N9 subtype virus infections among humans is much higher than that of seasonal influenza infections. The outbreaks in poultry have seriously impacted livelihoods, the economy and international trade in affected countries.
Controlling the disease in the animal source is critical to decrease risk to humans. But given the uncertainties involved in these estimates, vaccine effectiveness can vary widely—the — vaccine was only 10 percent effective in the United States, while the vaccine was 60 percent effective, according to the CDC.
GISN is based on countries sharing virus specimens freely with the WHO which assesses and eventually sends these samples to pharmaceutical companies in order to produce vaccines that are sold back to these countries.
The first record of the outbreak in Hong Kong appeared on 13 July in an area with a density of about people per acre in an urban setting.
An influenza pandemic occurs when a novel influenza virus emerges with the ability to cause sustained human-to-human transmission, and the human population has little to no immunity against the virus.
Since then, the virus has spread in the poultry population across the country and resulted in over reported human cases and many human deaths Other avian influenza viruses have resulted in sporadic human infections including the A H7N7 and A H9N2 viruses.
All of these animal influenza type A viruses are distinct from human influenza viruses and do not easily transmit among humans. In many patients infected by A H5 or A H7N9 avian influenza viruses, the disease has an aggressive clinical course.
All of these animal influenza type A viruses are distinct from human influenza viruses and do not easily transmit among humans. There is also a possibility of Asian H7N9 virus spreading to poultry in neighboring countries and human infections associated with poultry exposure may be detected in neighboring countries.
Outbreaks have resulted in millions of poultry infections, several hundred human cases, and many human deaths. Human infections are primarily acquired through direct contact with infected animals or contaminated environments, these viruses have not acquired the ability of sustained transmission among humans.
By reasserting control over public health issues and funding by setting itself up as the sole Indonesian representative to the WHO, the Ministry of Health made itself a key player in the management of future international funds relating vaccine production and renegotiated benefits from global surveillance networks.
Commercially available RDTs in general cannot provide subtype information. Top of Page Avian influenza viruses rarely infect people.
Other avian influenza A H5 subtype viruses have also resulted in both outbreaks in poultry and human infections. To date, although human-to-human transmission of these viruses is thought to have occurred in some instances when there had been close or prolonged contact with a patient, there has been no sustained human-to-human transmission identified.
They are, however, milder than either type A or B. Influenza D viruses primarily affect cattle and are not known to infect or cause illness in people. Fluor influenza ,is a contagious respiratory infection caused by a variety of flu viruses.
Lineages of Influenza A Viruses Avian influenza AI viruses — influenza viruses which infect birds —have evolved into distinct genetic lineages in different geographic locations.Avian Influenza is a disease of wild birds and domestic poultry caused by many different subtypes of Type A influenza virus.
The natural reservoir for Type A influenza viruses is wild water birds such as ducks and geese.
Aug 27, · China Has Withheld Samples of a Dangerous Flu Virus. Despite an international agreement, U.S.
health authorities still have not received H7N9 avian flu. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) Avian influenza (AI), commonly known as “bird flu,” is caused by an influenza type A virus. Avian influenza viruses occur naturally in birds. Wild bird species (such as ducks, swans and geese) can carry the.
Avian influenza A viruses are designated as highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) or low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) based on molecular characteristics of the virus and the ability of the virus to cause disease and.
Watch video · During the pandemic, scientists developed the first trivalent flu vaccine, which protected against one strain of influenza A/H1N1, one strain of influenza virus A/H3N2 and a type B virus.
Avian Influenza Virus. Avian influenza viruses are most frequently detected from ducks (Anseriformes), particularly from dabbling ducks, such as mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)–28 Typically, infections involve influenza virus subtypes H1–H12 and a wide variety of HA/NA subtype combinations.Download