Evaluation of women with PCOS should exclude alternate androgen-excess disorders and risk factors for endometrial cancer, mood disorders, obstructive sleep apnea, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.
Environmental risk factors, such as obesity, seem to amplify genetic predispositions Zhang et al. Myo-inositol seems to correct the mal-functioning insulin pathways and reduce the signs and symptoms of insulin resistance .
The expert panel concluded that each criterion has its own strengths and weaknesses; however, the use of multiple criteria was considered confusing, impeding progress in understanding PCOS. PCOS may present with any, or a combination of obesity, menstrual abnormalities, hirsutism, acanthosis nigricans, acne, hair loss or premature adrenarche.
Metformin Metformin belongs to insulin-sensitizing drugs commonly used in treating T2DM. Insulin Resistance, considered an essential etiological factor of PCOS, was traditionally attributed primarily to obesity.
Male pattern hair loss androgenic alopecia is a genetically determined disorder characterized by the gradual conversion of terminal hairs into indeterminate, and finally into vellus hairs.
For overweight anovulatory women with PCOS, weight loss and diet adjustments, especially to reduce the intake of simple carbohydrates, are associated with resumption of natural ovulation.
Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. However, the individual susceptibility probably Polycystic ovary syndrome evidence based practice essay on prenatal androgen exposure, genetic factors, ethnic origin and environmental risk factors Zhang et al.
Letrozole was usually administered at a dose of 2. In the s, however, the term polycystic ovary syndrome PCOS was first introduced and gradually started to replace its former name.
The term menstruation refers to the periodic shedding of the uterine lining. The pattern is not very sensitive; a ratio of 2: Metformin can reduce hirsutism, perhaps by reducing insulin resistance, and is often used if there are other features such as insulin resistance, diabetes, or obesity that should also benefit from metformin.
In particular, the risk of endometrial cancer may be even higher in the premenopausal subgroup of women with PCOS, while overall the risk of ovarian and breast cancer was not significantly increased.
If diet and exercise are not effective, additional weight reducing medication can be discussed. The other challenge for patients is dealing with psychosocial impact of mood disturbance and reduced psychological well-being on motivation and the ability to implement and sustain successful lifestyle changes that are critical in this condition.
It has been shown to reduce hyperandrogenemia by increasing the levels of SHBG.
Lastly, metformin is beneficial in adolescent girls with PCOS with regard to ovulation, the normalization of the menstrual cycle and even loss of weight [38,39]. This syndrome was given the name Stein—Leventhal syndrome after these two physicians for sometime.
It is usually worth trying other medications if one does not work, but medications do not work well for all individuals. Pathophysiology Normally, females of reproductive age experience cycles of hormonal activity that repeat at about one-month intervals.
Use of the adult diagnostic criteria in adolescence may not be appropriate, as the mean ovarian volume is higher in young women, hirsutism is uncommon and not related to PCOS and acne is similarly not related to PCOS . Women with PCOS may present with an array of serious clinical implications including reproductive manifestations hirsutism, infertility and pregnancy complications Boomsma et al.
The rise in estrogen from the dominant follicle triggers a surge in the amount of luteinizing hormone that is produced, which causes the dominant follicle to release its egg from the ovary into the fallopian tube. Similarly, the use of cosmetics as well as hair removal, used in conjunction with androgen suppression therapy, could be effective in the treatment of hirsutism.
If the egg is not fertilized, it passes through the uterus, and the lining covering it breaks down and sheds, and the next menstrual period begins. The majority of these occur in the PCOS woman. Essay UK - http: General interventions that help to reduce weight or insulin resistance can be beneficial for all these aims, because they address what is believed to be the underlying cause.
Other factors include changed levels of gonadotropinshyperandrogenemia and hyperinsulinemia. The pathophysiology of PCOS results from a primary defect in the pituitary function, as well as, defects in insulin secretion and action, and ovarian function.
Women with PCOS may present with an array of serious clinical implications including reproductive manifestations hirsutism, infertility and pregnancy complications Boomsma et al.
Obesity is a recognized risk factor for endometrial cancer and the authors of the most recent meta-analysis acknowledge that the increased risk of this cancer could be attributed, at least in part, to increased prevalence of obesity in PCOS women.
However, these psychological features do, in fact, compromise quality of life and adversely impact on mood and psychological well-being. These are believed to be the result of disturbed ovarian function with failed ovulation, reflected by the infrequent or absent menstruation that is typical of the condition.
Averagely, the menstrual cycle takes about 28 days and occurs in phases: One group meeting, several conference calls, and e-mail communications enabled consensus.
Raised LH levels will lead to an increase of androgen production and secretion by ovarian theca cells. It has been shown to reduce hyperandrogenemia by increasing the levels of SHBG.Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting reproductive aged women, with a prevalence of between 8% and 13% depending on the population studied and definitions used (1 x 1 Teede, H., Deeks, A., and Moran, L.
Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan. International evidence-based guideline for the assessment and management of polycystic ovary syndrome 1 Acknowledgments We gratefully acknowledge the contribution of our engaged, funding, partner and collaborating organisations.
Literature Review Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Health And Social Care Essay. Print Reference this.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), also known as Stein Leventhal Syndrome, was first described in A consensus statement of evidence-based dietary advice for women with poly cystic ovarian syndrome is needed and would be.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine metabolic disorder seen in women that continues to perplex health care providers. This confusion exists, in part, because the disorder has a wide spectrum of phenotypic expression, which lends itself to variable clinical presentation.
Diagnosis and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. Legro RS(1), Arslanian SA, Ehrmann DA, Hoeger KM, Murad MH, Pasquali R, Welt CK; Endocrine Society. prioritized questions to promote consistent, evidence-based care and improve the experience and health outcomes of women with PCOS.
What Is Known Already: Previous guidelines either lacked rigorous evidence-based processes, did not engage consumer and international multidisciplinary perspectives, or .Download